Bone Diseases and Treatment Process

Bone disease known as “osteopathy” the term osteopathy is commonly used to refer to another healthcare philosophy. the bones support the body move, shape and help your body. the Living tissues that rebuild constantly throughout your life. During childhood to your teens, the body adds new bone faster than it removes aged bone. After on age 20, you can drop bone faster than you build bone. To have muscular bones when you are young, and to stop bone loss when you are older.

Need to get sufficient vitamin D, calcium and exercise. You should also keep away from drinking too much alcohol and smoking.

Let’s start here telling about types of bone diseases:

  • Osteoporosis- A medical situation in which the bones develop into fragile and Delicate from loss of tissue, typically as a result of hormonal changes, or deficiency of calcium or vitamin D
  • Osteogenesis imperfecta – An inherited disorder characterized by rearward fragility of the bones
  • Rickets – A disease of children caused by vitamin D deficiency, characterized by imperfect calcification, softening, and distortion of the bones typically resulting in bow legs.
  • Fracture of bone Fracture, in pathology, a break in a bone caused by stress. Certain normal and pathological conditions may predispose the bone to fracture. Children have relatively weak bones due to incomplete calcification, and older adults, especially women past menopause develop osteoporosis, a weakening of concomitant bone with aging.
  • Osteomyelitis Infection of bone tissue. The disease is most commonly caused by Staphylococcus aureus infectious organism, reaching the bone through the bloodstream or extension of a local lesion; Inflammation continues with cancellous ossicle destruction (porous) and bone, loss of blood supply and bone death
  • Osteosarcoma The most common bone cancer, which affects mainly the long ossicle, particularly the regions knee, hip or shoulder. The cause of osteosarcoma is unknown, but genetic factors and radiotherapy may be involved in its development. Osteosarcoma occurs more often in males than in females; the most affected people are under 30 years.
  • Bone disease Any of the diseases or injuries affecting human bones. Diseases and injuries of the bones are the main causes of abnormalities of the human skeletal system. Although physical injury, causing fracture, dominates disease, fracture is just one of the common causes of bone disease, and the disease is in fact a common cause of fracture.
  • Metabolic bone disease Any of various diseases causing various abnormalities or ossicle deformities. Examples of metabolic bone diseases including osteoporosis, rickets, osteomalacia, osteogenesis imperfecta, marble bone disease (osteopetrosis), Paget’s disease of bone and fibrous dysplasia. In clinical terms, metabolic bone diseases can cause bone pain and loss of height (due to compression of the vertebrae), and predispose patients to fracture.
  • Achondroplasia genetic disorder characterized by an abnormality in the conversion of cartilage into ossicle. Consequently, the bones dependent models of cartilage development, particularly the long bones such as the femur and humerus, cannot grow. Achondroplasia is the most common cause of dwarfism.
  • Neurofibromatosis Any two distinct hereditary disorders characterized by skin lesions and benign tumors, which are enlarged progressively nervous system. Neurofibromatosis type 1, also known as von Recklinghausen’s disease is much more common of the two disorders and is present in approximately one of every 3,000 live births.
  • Paget disease of bone chronic disease of middle age, characterized by excessive breakdown and formation of bone tissue. It is a localized disease that can be unifocal, affecting a single bone, or multifocal, affecting many bones or nearly entire skeleton. For this reason, it is included between metabolic ossicle diseases.
  • Osteomalacia Condition in which the ossicle of an adult gradually soften due to inadequate bone mineralization. (In children, the condition is called rickets.) Osteomalacia may occur after several pregnancies or old age, resulting in increased susceptibility to fractures. Symptoms include ossicle pain, weakness, numbness of the limbs.
  • Bone cancer Disease characterized by the uncontrolled growth of ossicle cells. The primary bone cancer, that is, cancer that arises in the bone directly, is relatively rare. In the United States, for example, only about 2,400 new cases of primary bone cancer are diagnosed each year.
  • Ewing tumor of bone This type of bone cancer most commonly appears on the shafts of long bones such as the femur, tibia or humerus, or ribs or flat ossicle. The pelvis, scapula or skull. Related tumors may also develop in soft tissues.
  • Marble bone disease Rare disorder in which the bones become extremely dense, hard and brittle. The disease progresses as bone growth continues; Ossiclee cavities are filled with compact bone. Because increased crowds marrow bone mass, resulting in a reduced amount of bone and therefore a reduced capacity to produce red blood cells, severe anemia results capacity.
  • Osteochondroma Solitary benign tumor that consists of cartilage and ossicle portion. Osteochondroma are common and can spontaneously develop after a trauma or may have a hereditary basis. No treatment is required unless the tumor interferes with the function, in which case it must be surgically removed.
  • Osteochondrosis- Temporary orthopedic relatively common disorder in which children epiphysis (end growth) of a bone dies and then gradually replaced over a period of years. The immediate cause of bone death is the loss of blood supply, but the cause of the latter is unclear. The most common form, the flat coxa, or Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease affects the hip.
  • Fibrous dysplasia Rare congenital disorder of development that begins in childhood and is characterized by the substitution of solid calcified bone with fibrous tissue, often only on one side of the body and especially in the long ossicle and the pelvis. The disease appears to result from a genetic mutation that leads to overproduction of fibrous tissue.
  • Cleidocranial dysostosis congenital disorder, characterized by rare inherited clavicles that are absent or reduced in size, cranial abnormalities and abnormal dentition. The shoulders can sometimes play in front of the chest, and certain facial bones are underdeveloped or missing.
  • Osteoma- Small, often solitary bone tumor mainly found in the ossicle of the skull. Osteomas generally appear in late childhood or young adulthood; They are often asymptomatic. not become malignant, and treatment (excision) is necessary only if the tumor interferes with normal operation.
  • Osteoclastoma Bone is predominantly at the end of long ossicle in the knee region, but also occur in the wrist, arm and pelvis. Large multinucleated cells (giant cells) found in these tumors resemble osteoclasts, so the name of the tumor. Usually seen in adult women between the ages of 20 and 40, this relatively rare, painful tumor is potentially malignant.
  • Bone cyst Benigno saclike and that is usually filled with fluid. The unicameral ossicle cyst affect the long bones, particularly the humerus and femur, or heel bones in children and adolescents and is often detected as a result of a fracture. Treatment involves removal of the cyst and a bone graft, but spontaneous healing is common.
  • Melorheostosis rare disorder of unknown cause in which cortical bone growth occurs along the main axis of a bone so that resemble drops of candles. Pain is the main symptom, and stiffness and deformity may result. Usually, only one limb and hip or shoulder are affected.
  • Callus osteology In osteology, cartilaginous bone material and forming a bridge connecting through a ossicle fracture during repair. Within one to two weeks after injury, a provisional callus forms, wrapping the fracture site. Osteoblasts, bone-forming cells in the periosteum (the layer where new bone bone occurs) proliferate rapidly.
  • Caffey syndrome An inherited disease of children, characterized by swelling of the periosteum (bone layer where new ossicle is produced) and the ossicle cortex of the arms, shoulder girdle and lower jaw. The disease is accompanied by fever and irritability; After a series of periodic exacerbations, it disappears spontaneously.
  • Mandibulofacial dysostosis A rare genetic disorder, inherited as an autosomal dominant trait and characterized by some or all of the following: underdeveloped cheek ossicle and jaw, widely spaced eyes, malformation of the lower eyelid and lack of eyelashes, malformation of the atrium ear, absence of an external ear canal resulting conductive deafness.
  • Fracture dislocation A serious injury fracture and dislocation simultaneously occur. Often, a loose piece of bone remains jammed between the ends of bones and dislocated may have to be surgically removed before displacement can be reduced.

Treatment Process –

If you have any difficulty in bones, find the best doctor for a consult.

Autoimmune Diseases – Causes, Symptoms and Treatments

The immune system of our body is a collection of cells, tissues and molecules which work together to protect the body against any attack from foreign bodies like bacteria, viruses, fungi etc. Autoimmune disease occurs when the body’s immune system fails and starts producing antibodies which react against some of the body’s own tissues. This can have a lot of effects on the body and can even prove to be fatal in many cases. It is said to be the 3rd most common disease in USA. It is said to affect one in thirty one Americans.

An autoimmune process can cause the destruction of a particular type of cell or tissue, can cause an organ to grow excessively, and can even affect the organs’ functionality. The endocrine glands are mostly affected by this kind of disease. The generally affected areas include are the red blood cells, adrenal glands, thyroid, pancreas, connecting tissues and many skin and muscle joints. Women are more susceptible to auto immune diseases than men. The reason for this is yet to be discovered by researchers.

One of the main reasons for this could be that women have great immunity when compared to men for all kinds of diseases. So this makes them more prone to auto immune diseases.

Autoimmune diseases can be classified into 2 types:

Type1: Non organ Specific.

Type 2: Organ specific.

The first type of the disease can be spread throughout the entire body. Some of the non-organ specific disorders are: myasthenia gravis, multiple sclerosis, lupus and rheumatoid arthritis.

The second type is specific to a particular organ of the body. Some of the organ specific disorders are: chronic hepatitis – a disease that affects the liver, Addison’s disease affecting the adrenal glands, pernicious anemia which affects the stomach, diabetes (insulin dependent) affecting the pancreas and Hashimoto’s disease that affects the thyroid glands.

Researchers believe that there are many factors that can be attributed as the cause of autoimmune diseases. Drugs, pollution, certain types of viruses, heredity are some of the attributed causes. Many doctors also believe that close marriages or marrying family members is also a major factor for the auto immune diseases.

Doctors conduct various tests like checking your blood samples, radiological studies etc to diagnose if you have the autoimmune disease. There symptoms accompanied by the auto immune disease are specific to each disease and widely vary. The general symptoms are fever, low grade infections, fatigue, dizziness and loss of appetite.

Most autoimmune diseases are given treatment according to the symptoms. Doctors prescribe corticosteroid drugs, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and some very powerful immunosuppressant drugs like cyclophosphamide, azathioprine and methotrexate that suppresses the response of the immune system and there by the progression of the autoimmune disease.

There is no best remedy other than self care. If one takes proper care of themselves without leading an unhealthy life these diseases can be prevented. Doctors recommend a diet highly rich in vitamins and minerals can help reduce the effects of the auto immune disease.

To Your Health!

That Pandemic Pattern

Between 1918 and 1919, the influenza pandemic claimed more than 550,000 deaths in the United states alone. One must appreciate that this strain of influenza virus appeared at a time in history when no medical authority on earth could discern what an influenza virus even was. The term was not even in use yet.

It would take nearly another 20 years before the word virus was associated with influenza. At the time medical professionals the world over were at a loss to find a way to treat influenza, and the treatments they implemented often did more harm than good. Doctors, at a loss as to what direction to take to stop the disease, used every technique they had at the time. Enemas and blood-letting were instigated, but did nothing more than help spread the virus.

Eventually, albeit way too late, governments began implementing isolation rules. People were asked to stop congregating in large crowds and activities were mostly conducted outdoors, in the belief the disease was prominent when one was indoors in a crowd. Events like court cases, shopping, and meetings were held outdoors.

This was all new to the world of 2018. They were involved in a war to end all wars, an event that was leaving many countries financially ruined and struggling to function. It could not have occurred at a worse time in history. In simple terms, medical science was simply not equipped to deal with an influenza outbreak of this scale. Doctors and nurses the world over were working with a disease they could not recognise or define. The events of the, First World War, were beginning to pale in comparison to the devastation the pandemic was creating.

It soon became clear that only non pharmaceutical interventions, or NPI’s would be the only solution, as adequate drugs were not yet available to fight this disease. Medicines like, antibiotics and vaccines were non existent. Medical professionals soon realised there was no cure and focused on prevention to stop the spread of the virus. Therefore, NPI measures like, social distancing, isolation, and quarantining became the norm for stopping the spread.

One of the biggest lessons that should have been learned from this period, was to be open and honest. Public figures took too long to react to the 1918-18 influenza pandemic, often playing it down and failing to act sooner than they did. There seems to be a historical pattern to this event.

The, World Health Organisation, or WHO, is tasked with dealing with such events as pandemics. Their duties include monitoring outbreaks worldwide and implementing measures to prevent the spread. They have over the course of time, compared theories that reveal new strains of influenza virus coincide with changes in weather patterns such as, La Niña. It is assumed that during these changes in weather, migratory birds alter their habits and interact with domesticated animals such as poultry and pigs. This transmits virus from one animal to another, which then mutates and is passed on to humans.

An incident like this occurred during 1997 when in a region of Hong Kong, a virus later named the Bird Flu, appeared in domesticated poultry. This spread through contact to humans who then became infected. Some of these human infections proved fatal. This strain of the virus along with other mutated versions, spread through other parts of Asia, killing even more people. All these viruses had the potential of spreading and turning in to a pandemic, however due diligence helped to eventually contain the virus.

Once again during April of 2009, the World Health Organisation declared a level 5 pandemic was imminent. Given that there are only 6 levels implemented by the World Health Organisation, the level 5 phase was taken very seriously by both governments and medical professionals world wide. Measures were put in place to establish treatment centres, drugs were distributed all over the globe, and strict policies and procedures were put in place to combat the outbreak.

Even with this swift and radical action, the virus tentacled its way across the globe, infecting more than 200 countries. The WHO eventually reclassified the alert from phase 5 to phase 6, effectively observing it as a pandemic. Ironically, ten years later in 2019, the world was alerted to a new virus. The COVID-19, or otherwise known as the, Coronavirus.

The COVID-19 virus could have been avoided, or controlled in such a way as to avoid a pandemic. However lack of transparency and a failure by governments and medical professionals to act responsibly, has seen the virus spread throughout the world and take control. It has so far claimed thousands of lives and continues to spread untethered. No vaccine is yet available, and if one should be formulated it would taken many months to fully begin implementation.

The world could have been better prepared had they heeded warnings or even learnt lessons from the past. Experts have been warning the world about a coming pandemic for years. One of these experts, Michael Osterholm, an epidemiologist and qualified expert in infectious diseases, has been warning about this moment for years. He pointed out the lack of preparedness by governments and hospitals. He campaigned for more ventilators to be added to hospitals and warned how ill prepared we were in the face of a pandemic.

It’s easy to point fingers now and on reflection, one has all the answers. However the sad part of this tale is that we never listen and learn. Perhaps the day will dawn when humans realise that the most dangerous threat to our existence is an uncontrolled, rampant virus.

Global Anticoccidial Drugs Market: By Animal Types

The Global Anticoccidial Drugs Market is expected to reach $2.433 million by the end of 2020 growing at a CAGR of around 3.9% from 2014 to 2020.

Coccidiosis as a disease is present in almost all types of animals ranging from poultry, ruminants to companion animals. In poultry and cattle markets the incidence of coccidiosis has cost millions of dollars in treatment and preventive care being given. Also the trend of owning companion animals is also contributing to the increasing use of anitcoccidials, as dogs, cats and occasionally even horses are prone to coccidiosis and if left untreated it could lead to the death of the animal.

The global market for anticoccidials is increasing as the need for more and more meat, milk and milk products are required to feed the ever growing population. These factors make the farm animal market account for nearly 80% of the anticoccidial market.

1. Swine

As per the research, North America is the fastest growing anticoccidials market in case of pigs. The disease is more common and widespread in small pigs but is seen occasionally in growing pigs and boars. Increase in the intake of meat and its products are the major factor augmenting the growth of this market.

2. Poultry

Coccidia disease infects almost every poultry house worldwide. The entire life cycle of avian coccidian requires 7 days for completion. Short life cycle and large number of sporulating ocyst of parasites help in increasing the chance of contamination to a large population. The growth rate of the market is slightly lower due to decline in the poultry market over the last 5 years due to increased incidences of avian flu and other communicable diseases that are easily spreading to human from infected birds. The main aim of the market players will be to bring the communicable diseases under control. After that there will a steady growth in the poultry market which will in turn augment the growth of drug market.

3. Ruminant

Coccidiosis is one of the major diseases affecting cows. It especially affects calf of the age of 6 months to 2 years. Asia Pacific region, especially India, has highest number of cattle and does not have strict regulations regarding the health of cattle. Hence the market is expected to grow at a faster rate in Asia Pacific region.

4. Aquaculture

Eimeria is the only organism that is extensively known for causing the disease in water bodies. It mostly affects carp and marine fish. It affects mainly the carp and marine fish. Only Amprolium is used for the treatment of the disease in fish. The intake of fish and other aquatic organisms is very prominent across the globe. This fact gives the new entrants a good reason to invest in the drugs for aquatic bodies.