Hepatitis and Sexually Transmitted Diseases Explained

WHAT IS VIRAL HEPATITIS?

Viral Hepatitis: This is the inflammation and necrosis of the liver caused by a virus or group of viruses.

There are other types of hepatitis including hepatotoxic and drugs related hepatitis and alcoholic hepatitis.

Types of Viral Hepatitis

There are many types of viral hepatitis

Hepatitis A, B, C, D, E and G e.t.c

HEPATITIS B: It is caused by the Hepatitis B virus. A DNA hepadna virus with a partially double-stranded DNA genome.

HEPATITIS C: This is a serious and often-silent liver infection caused by the Hepatitis C virus – a single stranded RNA virus.At least six major genotypes have been identified.

MODE OF TRANSMISSION

Hepatitis B and C viruses are transmitted by contacts with infected blood or blood products

For example, via contaminated needles (including unsterilized tattoo needles), accidental needle-sticks in healthcare workers, and unprotected sex, sharing nailclippers, razors, or toothbrushes

-Unscreened Blood Transfusions.

OTHER MODES OF TRANSMISSION

It can also be present in saliva, semen and vaginal secretions and through HbsAg positive mothers to child (maternal-neonatal transmission). Hepatitis B is prevalent in homosexuals and intravenous drug users but most cases result from heterosexual transmission. The incubation period of hepatitis B is 6 weeks to 6 months (average of 12 – 14 weeks). That of Hepatitis C is between 6-7 weeks and clinical illness is often mild, usually asymptomatic.

Signs and Symptoms

Hepatitis C has been called “the silent killer” because the virus often hides in the body for years, escaping detection as it attacks the liver. Since most people don’t have warning signs of hepatitis C (or don’t know how or when they were infected).

They don’t seek treatment until many years later. By the time hepatitis C symptoms appear or a diagnosis is made, the damage often is well underway.

If symptoms do appear, they may be mild or severe. Among the most common complaints are:

Fatigue

Fever

Muscle or joint pain

Poor appetite

Nausea

Pain in the upper right part of the abdomen

Dark yellow urine

Vomiting

Yellowish skin or eyes (jaundice)

Itchy skin

Pale stools, easy bleeding, easy bruising.

Yellow Eyes: A Symptom

Acute and Chronic Hepatitis

ACUTE HEPATITIS as the name implies means the illness is sudden and short-lived, occurring within the first two weeks to six months of infection.

In up to 25% of cases, the virus clears from the body on its own without treatment.

CHRONIC HEPATITIS:

For hepatitis to change from an Acute state to Chronic, there should be persistent infection after six months and often much longer.

An estimated 75% to 85% of people with acute hepatitis go on to develop chronic infection.

Diagnosis of Hepatitis

Unless symptoms arise, people with hepatitis C usually don’t know they have the infection until it’s discovered during routine blood testing.

Simple blood test can tell if one is infected or not.

The routine tests include:

Tests for HbsAg

Tests for Anti-HCV.

Further tests and assays are proceeded for individuals who test positive to the above tests.

THE COMPLICATIONS OF CHRONIC HEPATITIS

As many as one in four people with chronic hepatitis C go on to develop cirrhosis, or severe scarring of the liver.

These people may have additional symptoms, including swelling of the legs and abdomen, spider-like blood vessels, and a buildup of toxins in the bloodstream that can lead to brain damage.

Persons with chronic hepatitis B, particularly when HBV infection is acquired early in life and viral replication persists, are at substantial risk of having cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.

Chronic hepatitis C is also one of the leading causes of liver cancer.

TREATMENTS

Treatments have vastly improved over the years. Today’s medications are more effective at ridding the body of the virus, and they have fewer side effects.

The type of treatment you receive will depend on the genotype, or strain, of your hepatitis, as well as how much damage the liver has sustained.

TREATMENT OF HEPATITIS B

The goal of treating chronic hepatitis B is to control the virus and keep it from damaging the liver. This begins with regular monitoring for signs of liver disease.

Antiviral medications may help, but not everyone can take them.

TREATMENTS: CHRONIC HEPATITIS C

Medications

Some of the newest medicines for hepatitis C genotypes 1, 2, and 3 include: Daclatasvir (Daklinza); Elbasvir/grazoprevir (Zepatier); Ledipasvir (Harvoni); Ombitasvir, paritaprevir, and ritonavir with dasabuvir tablets (Viekira Pak); Sofosbuvir/velpatasvir (Epclusa); Sofosbuvir (Sovaldi); Daclatasvir (Daklinza) with sofosbuvir (Sovaldi); and Sofosbuvir/velpatasvir (Epclusa).

Injectibles

PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF HEPATITIS B

The hepatitis B vaccine is recommended for all infants at birth and for adults

PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF HEPATITIS C

Currently, there is no vaccine for Hepatitis C.

Avoid any contacts with body fluids by protecting yourself using protective measures.

FACTS ABOUT STDs

Chlamydia:This is a common STD that can lead to infertility if left untreated. It clears up quickly with antibiotics. But it often goes unnoticed because symptoms are vague or absent.

Women with symptoms may notice

– An abnormal vaginal discharge;

– A painful urinating.

Symptoms in men can include:

A discharge from their

penis;

A burning sensation when

urinating; (dysuria)

Pain and swelling in one

or both testicles

Can chlamydia be cured?

Yes, chlamydia can be cured with the right treatment. When taken properly it will stop the infection and could decrease your chances of having complications later on.

GONORRHEA

Gonorrhea spreads easily and can lead to infertility in both men and women.

Antibiotics can stop the infection.

– Burning during urination and discharge.

– Later, the infection may cause skin rashes or spread to the joints and blood.

In Men: Discharge from the penis, swollen testicles.

In Women: Vaginal discharge, pelvic pain, spotting. Symptoms may be mild and are easily confused with a urinary tract or vaginal infection.

SYPHILIS

Most people don’t notice the early symptoms of syphilis. Without treatment, it can lead to paralysis, blindness, and death.

Syphilis can be cured with antibiotics.

Signs and Symptoms: The first sign is usually a firm, round, painless sore on the genitals or anus. The disease spreads through direct contact with this sore.

Later, there may be a rash on the soles, palms, or other parts of the body, as well as swollen glands, fever, hair loss, or fatigue. In the late stage, damage to organs such as the heart, brain, liver, nerves, and eyes occurs.

Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2

Most cases of genital herpes are caused by a virus called HSV-2. It’s highly contagious and can spread through intercourse or direct contact with a herpes sore.

There is no cure. But antiviral drugs can make outbreaks less frequent and help clear up symptoms more quickly.

Symptoms: Fluid-filled blisters that form painful, crusted sores on the genitals, anus, thighs, or buttocks. Can spread to the lips through oral contact.

HIV/AIDS

The HIV virus weakens the body’s defense against infections. HIV spreads through unprotected sex, needle sharing, or being born to an infected mother. It may cause no symptoms for years, so a blood test is the best way to learn your status.

Timely treatment is important to help prevent serious illnesses. Many have no symptoms, but some people get temporary flu-like symptoms one to two months after infection: swollen glands (seen here), a fever, headaches, and fatigue. Canker sores in the mouth can occur, too.

TREATMENT OPTIONS FOR HIV

While there is no cure for HIV, there are medications that can suppress the amount of virus multiplying inside the body. People take a combination of antiviral drugs in hopes of preventing the infection from advancing to AIDS.

Trichomoniasis

Trichomoniasis is caused by a parasite that spreads during sexual contact. It can be cured with prescription drugs.

Signs and Symptoms in Men: Most men have no obvious symptoms. Some develop a mild discharge or slight burning during urination.

Signs and Symptoms in Women: Women may develop a yellow-green discharge with a strong odor, vaginal itching, or pain during sex or urination. Symptoms usually begin five to 28 days after acquiring the parasite.

COMPLICATIONS OF STDs

Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is a serious complication of untreated STDs, especially chlamydia and gonorrhea.

It happens when bacteria spread to infect the uterus and other female reproductive organs. Prompt treatment is essential to prevent damage to a woman’s fertility.

Signs and Symptoms: Lower abdominal pain, fever, unusual discharge, painful intercourse, painful urination, and spotting. However, there are often no warning signs.

Who’s at Risk for STDs?

Anyone who is sexually active is at risk for an STD, regardless of gender, race, social class, or sexual orientation.

That said, teenagers and young adults acquire STDs more easily than older people.

Can Virgins Get STDs?

Yes, they can. Many STDs spread through any type of sexual activity, including skin-to-skin contact and oral sex. This is especially true of STDs that produce genital lesions or sores.

Preventing STDs

The best ways to avoid getting an STD are to abstain from any sexual contact.

Do not share sharps and needles.

Avoid the use of unsterilised objects.

Make hyiene a priority.

What You Need to Know About Heart Diseases and Stroke

Introduction.

Heart disease is a name given to a variety of conditions that affect the performance of the heart. There are certain disturbances in the action of the heart without any disease in the organ. Most common of these is palpitation. This may be due to emotional states, such as fear, anger, joy, grief, or anxiety; or to certain drugs or poisons such as may be found in tea, coffee, tobacco, or alcoholic drinks.

As heart failure approaches, the real symptoms of the heart disease appear. Shortness of breath on slight exertion is one of the first symptoms. Distress and fullness after eating are very common. Other early symptoms are weakness and lack of endurance, in the legs particularly; palpitation of the heart with fullness in the chest and a dry cough; dull pain and soreness in the region of the liver and also over the heart. Swelling of the ankles may be one of the first symptoms noticed. It is usually worse in the evening and disappears during sleep. Weakness increases until the patient finds himself utterly exhausted on the slightest exertion. He is restless and sleepless.

Every person with acute heart disease of any variety should be under the daily care of a physician and everyone with chronic heart disease should be seen frequently by a physician. A common misconception about the heart is that once it is affected, there is the permanent difficulty, with chronic invalidism and early death. Nothing is further from the truth. The rugged heart often makes an excellent recovery in the course of time. Rest, both physical and mental, is a valuable remedy. The patient must choose food that will not cause gas and indigestion, and guard against emotional outbursts, especially anger.

1. Types of Heart Diseases.

Important examples of heart disease include:

i. Angina, in which there is poor blood circulation to the heart.

ii. Heart Attack, in which there is the death of part of the heart muscle.

iii. Arrhythmia, in which the rate or rhythm of the heartbeat is abnormal.

iv. Atherosclerosis, in which the arteries harden. It is a build-up of cholesterol and other fat substances within the walls of the arteries. Atherosclerosis is a progressive disease and can develop in any artery in the body. It is a common disorder of the arteries.

v. Rheumatic, this was formerly one of the most serious forms of heart disease of childhood and adolescence. This disease involves damage to the entire heart and its membranes. It is a complication of rheumatic fever and usually occurs after attacks of rheumatic fever. The incidence of this condition has been greatly reduced by widespread use of antibiotics effective against the streptococcal bacterium that causes rheumatic fever.

vi. Myocarditis, it’s the inflammation or degeneration of the heart muscle. This can be due to a complication during or after various viral, bacterial or parasitic infectious diseases, such as polio, influenza, rubella, or rheumatic fever. This can be caused by several diseases such as syphilis, goitre, endocarditis, or hypertension. It may be associated with dilation (enlargement due to the weakness of the heart muscle) or with hypertrophy (overgrowth of the muscle tissue).

2. Know the signs of a heart attack.

During a heart attack, men often have these symptoms:

i. Pain or discomfort in the Centre of the chest.

ii. Pain or discomfort in other areas of the upper body, including the arms, back, neck, jaw, or stomach.

iii. Other symptoms, such as shortness of breath breaking out in a cold sweat, nausea, or light-headedness.

3. The basics of stroke.

Stroke is the third leading cause of death for men. The stroke occurs when part of the brain does not get the blood it needs. Then, brain cells die.

There are two types of stroke.

i. An ischemic (iss-kee-mik) stroke. This happens when blood is blocked from getting to the brain.

ii. A hemorrhagic (heh-muh-ra-jik) stroke. This happens when a blood vessel in the brain bursts and blood bleeds into the brain.

A person might also have a “mini-stroke.” This happens when, for a short time, less blood than normal gets to the brain. You may have some signs of a full stroke, or you may not notice any signs at all. But it only lasts a few minutes up to 24 hours. Then you’re back to normal. Many people don’t even know they’ve had it. However, a “mini-stroke” is a sign of a full stroke to come, so it’s important to know the signs of a stroke.

4. Know the signs of Stroke.

The signs of a stroke happen suddenly and are different from the signs of a heart attack. Look for these signs:

i. Weakness or numbness on one side of your body.

ii. Dizziness

iii. loss of balance

iv. Confusion

v. Trouble talking or understanding speech

vi. A headache

vii. Nausea

viii. Trouble walking or seeing.

Remember: Even if you have a “mini-stroke” you may have some of these signs.

5. 12 Steps to a healthy heart;

i. Do not smoke: It is no surprise that smoking hurts your heart. So if you smoke, try to quit.

ii. Get your cholesterol tested: If it is high (above 200), talk to your doctor or nurse about losing weight (if you are overweight) and getting more active. Ask if there is the medicine that may help.

iii. Know your blood pressure: Your heart moves blood through your body. If it is hard for your heart to do this, your heart works harder and your blood pressure will rise. Have it checked to make sure you’re on track! It is high (systolic above 139 and diastolic above 89), talk to your doctor or nurse about how to lower it.

iv. Get tested for diabetes: Diabetes can raise your chances of getting heart disease. If you have diabetes, keep your blood sugar levels in check! This is the best way for you to take care of yourself and your heart.

v. Eat heart-healthy foods: Whole grain foods, vegetables, and fruits. Choose lean meats and low-fat cheese and dairy products. Limit foods that have lots of saturated fat, like butter, whole milk, baked goods, ice cream, fatty meats and cheese.

vi. Keep a healthy weight: Being overweight or obese raises your risk for heart disease.

vii. Eat less salt: Choose foods salt. Use spices, herbs, lemon, and lime instead of salt. This is really important if you have high blood pressure.

viii. Do not drink too much of alcohol: Too much alcohol raises blood pressure and can raise your risk of stroke and other problems.

ix. Get moving: Get at least 30 minutes of physical activity on most days, if not all days of the week.

x. Take your medicine: If your doctor has prescribed medicine to lower your blood pressure or cholesterol, take it exactly as you have been told to take it.

xi. Take steps to treat your sleep problems: If you snore loudly, have been told you stop breathing at times when you sleep and are very sleepy during the day, you may have sleep apnea. If you don’t treat it, it raises your chances of having a heart attack or stroke. Talk with your doctor or nurse about treating this problem.

xii. Find healthy ways to cope with stress: Sometimes, people cope with stress by eating, drinking too much alcohol, or smoking-these are all ways that could hurt your heart. Lower your stress: talk to friends, be physically active, or meditate.

Cockatiel Diseases – A Description of 3 Pet Cockatiel Illnesses

Cockatiels are generally hardy birds which helps make them one of the most popular pet birds. However, there are illnesses that are specific to the species. Getting to know what is normal for your bird (and normal is different for birds even of the same species) will help you to know when there is a problem and allow you to get help quickly. Here are 3 descriptions of diseases and their symptoms.

Pacheco’s Virus has proven to be nearly 100% fatal because of its hard to detect symptoms and aggressive attack on the bird’s system. Caused by the herpes virus, it is generally spread from one bird to another through spoiled food, water, and droppings; and birds that are stressed seem more susceptible. There has been some success in treatment with the use of a vaccine, but it causes side effects that are almost as problematic as the disease itself, mainly tumors at the injection site, paralysis, and death. It is the larger parrots that seem to have most of the negative reactions to the vaccine. The best defense seems to be a powerful offense on the owner’s part by staying alert for any changes in your bird’s eating patterns, elimination, energy level, or onset of discharge of any kind and then getting your bird professional help immediately.

Psittacine Beak and Feather Disease often abbreviated as PBFD is cause by a virus–psittacine circovirus 1 (PsCV-1), that attacks the immune system that presents with loss of feathers, deformed development of beaks, nails, and claws. Birds showing any of these symptoms should be immediately tested for the disease as early detection increases the chance of survival exponentially. This disease spreads through airborne dander, feather, dried fecal matter and secretions from the infected bird, easily infects other birds, but cannot be passed to humans. The good news is that often young birds survive and form a natural immunity to the disease.

Psittacosis sometimes referred to as Parrot Fever or Bird Fancier’s Lung (BFL), is a disease that all species of birds are susceptible to, and one that can be passed to humans as well. Pet birds are the most frequent transmitters of the disease especially many types of Parrots. Because it is caused by virus-like bacteria, it can be effectively treated with antibiotics when detected early. There is a good recovery rate for birds and humans. Spread from minute particle of infected fecal matter that dries and becomes airborne, it is a menace to other birds as well.

Goat Diseases – Protecting Your Goats From Common Illnesses

Like other farm animals, goats also suffer from various diseases especially if they fail to take occasional vaccination. These goat diseases may be bacterial, viral, or parasitic among others. As most of these diseases can be hardly determined due to their identical symptoms, it would be advisable for owners to have them checked up every once in a while for the benefit of the goat and for the safety of your farm.

Ketosis (Acetonemia) is one of the most common goat diseases because of the animal’s inclination to concentrated food. Another problem that farmers deal with is when the goat becomes profoundly infested with worms. This goat disease is known as ‘big head.’ You can tell when the goat has big head if it suddenly develops a swollen head accompanied by paleness of skin. This should not be confused with bloating, another common problem with goats. By observing your goat, you will notice that it frequently urinates, appears anxious, and behaves differently from the rest. At this point, the goat should be taken for consultation to avoid complications.

Goat diseases can be prevented with regular check-up. A once-a-month visit to the veterinarian would be advisable. Being on the lookout for possible trouble occurring within the herd would contribute in preventing loss of a goat. There are ways to know whether something is wrong with one of the goats.

– Observe which among the herd often isolates itself. Goats are naturally sociable and friendly that is why they pass for a pet nowadays and separation from the herd would mean a sign of problem

– Watch for abnormalities in feces and droppings. Usually, one suffering from a disease would have irregularity in droppings or urine. Among the most recognizable symptoms for goat diseases are diarrhea (with blood), pus from the ears, mouth, vulva or any part of the goat’s body

– Swelling of the chin is also another sign your goat is ailing

– Notice defects in movements besides the behavior

Meanwhile, you can do your own goat check as well to make sure that the herd is in the pink. The main areas that you have to secure are the rectal temperature with at least 39 degrees and the pulse rate that must be at 80 or less beats per minute.

It is important for every farmer to know the various goat diseases that may affect a member of the herd. Learning about the symptoms and first aid treatments would also help to minimize the risk. Give them proper goat care and you will only have to worry less.